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驻印度使馆就南海问题在《德干先驱报》刊文

2016-01-14 09:28:27  驻印度大使馆  我来说两句(0)
  1月13日,驻印度使馆在印度主流媒体《德干先驱报》发表文章《中方致力于南海的和平、稳定和航行自由》,就南海历史经纬、永暑礁校验试飞、航行自由等问题作出全面阐述。全文如下:

  

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  China is Committed to Peace, Stability and Navigation Freedom of South China Sea

  Recently, China has finished building a new airport on Yongshu Reef of China's Nansha Islands. The Chinese government conducted a test flight to the airport with two civilian aircrafts in order to test whether or not the facilities on it meet the standards for civil aviation, which is all about the technical, civil, and for international public service. However, Some people have misunderstanding on it. It is necessary to make a clarification from both historical and realistic perspectives, to learn the truth of South China Sea issue.

  Dating back to 1,000 years ago, China was already a major country in sea navigation. China was surely the first country that found, exploited and governed the Nansha Islands.

  During World War II, Japan invaded and occupied the Nansha Islands. After WWII, the Chinese government overtly recovered the Nansha Islands according to law based on a series of international conventions and agreements including the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation.

  The international community had never raised doubts about China’s sovereignty over the Nansha Islands until 1960s, and the countries with a high voice today acknowledged or tacitly approved that the Nansha Islands are China’s territory by the means of diplomatic notes or publicly published maps. Afterwards, for the well-known domestic reasons of China and the statement that oil has been discovered under the South China Sea, some countries began to encroach and invade China’s islands and reefs. Actually, China is the biggest victim on the South China Sea issue.

  Even so, the Chinese government has always adhered to peaceful settlement of the South China Sea issue and advocated seeking for a proper solution through negotiations and consultations with the parties directly related to the issue on the basis of respecting historical facts and in accordance with the International Law, which is also the stipulation of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) signed between China and the 10 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This position will not change in the future.

  Since the 1970s, some countries have begun to engage in massive construction of various facilities including a large number of military installations on invaded islands and reefs of China. On the other hand, the necessary construction taken by China, which did not begin until recently, is mainly aimed at improving the working and living conditions of the personnel stationed on the islands and reefs. Besides, as a major country, China needs to provide the international community with public products and benefit the international community through bringing into play civil functions of these facilities. The necessary construction of China on its own islands and reefs is totally different in nature from expansion of facilities by some invasive countries on China’s islands and reefs.

  Some people have their concerns about the freedom of navigation in South China Sea. In facts, China also has a stake in the freedom of navigation in this area. The majority of Chinese cargo are shipped through the South China Sea, so freedom of navigation in the South China Sea is equally important to China. China always maintains that countries enjoy freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea in accordance with the international law.

  The situation remains positive and encouraging. Through friendly consultations, China and ASEAN countries have developed a full set of mechanisms to properly handle the South China Sea issue. First, the issue shall be resolved through a dual-track approach, which means specific disputes should be addressed peacefully by parties directly concerned through consultation and negotiation. This is stipulated in Article 4 of the DOC, and it is also a joint commitment by China and the 10 ASEAN countries. Second, the parties shall implement the DOC in good faith and work toward a Code of Conduct (COC) through consultation. Third, China has taken the initiative to propose the formulation of "preventive measures on managing perils at sea". On this new platform, various parties may put forward proposals and ideas for discussion. If consensus is reached, action may follow.

  China firmly upholds the defense policy that is defensive in nature and opposes actions of militarization taken by any country in the South China Sea that are detrimental to security, stability and mutual trust. The Chinese side does not pursue to militarize the South China Sea. It makes no sense to relate construction on islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands to militarization. Peace and stability of the South China Sea is what all relevant countries should work for. It also requires joint efforts by countries in and outside the region to prevent the South China Sea from being militarized.

  中译文:

  中方致力于南海的和平、稳定和航行自由

  近期,中方在南沙群岛永暑礁的新建机场已竣工。根据国际惯例,为了测试永暑礁新建机场是否符合民用航空标准,中国政府已征用民航飞机实施该机场校验和试飞任务。该活动具有专业性、技术性、民事性和国际公益性。但仍有个别国家对此进行指责,有些人也有一定误解。鉴此,有必要厘清南海问题的历史与现实,从而看清事情的真相。

  中国早在一千年以前就是航海大国,是最早发现、使用和管辖南沙群岛的国家。二战期间,日本军队侵占南沙群岛,二战结束后,中国政府根据开罗宣言、波茨坦公告等国际条约和宣言依法、公开地收复了南沙群岛。

  至少在上世纪60年代,国际社会包括南沙周围国家都以不同方式,如外交照会、公开出版的地图,承认或默认中国对南沙群岛享有主权。然而此后由于中国国内众所周知的原因,以及据说在南海发现石油,一些国家开始非法侵占、蚕食南海岛礁。所以,中国实际上是这一问题的最大的受害者。

  尽管如此,中国政府一直坚持用和平手段解决南沙问题,始终主张在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据国际法包括《南海各方行为宣言》,通过与直接当事国的谈判磋商和平解决争端,这一立场今后不会改变。

  从上世纪70年代后,一些国家开始在非法侵占的中国岛礁上大兴土木、兴建各种设施,包括军事设施,而中国只在最近才开始一些必要的建设,主要是为了改善岛礁上人员的工作和生活条件。作为大国,中国还要向国际上提供公共产品,通过民用设施发挥公共效益。中国是在自己的岛礁上开展必要的建设,跟一些国家在侵占的中国岛礁上搞建设,是两个完全不同的问题。

  有些人比较关心南海的航行自由。其实中方对南海的航行自由有同样关切。中国大部分货物运输经过南海,南海航行自由对中国同样非常重要。中方一直主张各方根据国际法在南海享有航行和飞越自由。直到今天,从没有发生一起南海航行自由受到影响的情况。中方愿与各方一道,继续维护好南海的航行与飞越自由。

  目前南海的形势总体是积极的。中国与东盟国家经过友好协商,已就妥善处理南海问题形成一整套机制:一是通过“双轨思路”处理南海问题,即具体争议由直接当事方通过谈判协商和平解决,这也是《南海各方行为宣言》第四条的规定,中国和东盟10国都已就此做出了承诺;南海的和平稳定则由中国和东盟国家共同维护。我要告诉各位的是,中国与东盟完全有能力维护好这片海域的和平。二是落实《宣言》和磋商“南海行为准则”。三是中方主动建议探讨制定“海上风险管控预防性措施”。在这个新平台上,可以讨论各方提出的倡议和设想,如果能达成共识,就可以实施。

  中国坚定奉行防御性的国防政策,反对任何国家在南海采取不利于安全、稳定和互信的“军事化”行动,中方也不谋求在南海搞“军事化”。将南沙岛礁建设同“军事化”挂钩是没有道理的。维护南海地区的和平稳定是所有有关国家应该共同努力的方向。避免南海“军事化”也需要地区各国和域外国家共同作出努力。

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标签: 刊文 南海 印度 责任编辑:陶艺

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